Forgive if I use English as the means of communication and I am not an anglophile.
Having said that, I state here everyone who reads this forum and has the right perspective should spread their understanding of wild birds.
Wild birds are victims; their freelands are being mercilessly encroached, damaged and destroyed by humans as a result of their population
increase nearly exponentially. Human greed and cruelty and largely partial understanding leads to the present state. I dare say human beings would not be tolerated by nature or mother earth and their future is doomed.
Having said that, to redeem part of our sins, everyone should spread the news that in spite of the fact that birds are bird flu carriers, without the medium of domestic poultry kept in poor hygienic state and proper isolation, wild birds will keep humanly harmless bird flus to themselves until the flus's genes are reshuffled and producing new ones that cause human deaths. Is that clear who are the wrongdoers?
We are all great sinners in the eyes of God or the buddhas. The Bible says humans are given the power to take care of other animals, not controlling their life and death. And Buddha said every life has equal right. In the eyes of every truly great mind, humans are no superior whose minds are evils themselves.
My statements here are not extremists'. I only speak the truths.
Everyone from now on eat just enough according to the principle of a balanced diet. Get most of our protein from plants, not wholly or nearly all from animals. Save animal lives whenever you can. Our mercy is just enough to redeem one hundredth or less of our wrongdoings.
S L Tai Author: fkm Time: 19/04/2013 00:15
借分享，謝謝！ Author: K_Chan Time: 27/04/2013 18:21 Subject: H7N9 來源 - 刺血針醫學期刊 (Source of H7N9 - The Lancet)
Human infections with the emerging avian influenza A H7N9 virus from wet market poultry: clinical analysis and characterisation of viral genome
Yu Chen MD a b †, Weifeng Liang MD a b †, Shigui Yang PhD a b †, Nanping Wu PhD a b †, Hainv Gao MD a b, Jifang Sheng MD a b, Hangping Yao PhD a b, Jianer Wo PhD a b, Qiang Fang MD a, Dawei Cui PhD a, Yongcheng Li MD c, Xing Yao MD d, Yuntao Zhang MD a, Haibo Wu PhD a b, Shufa Zheng PhD a, Hongyan Diao PhD a b, Shichang Xia MD e, Yanjun Zhang PhD e, Kwok-Hung Chan PhD f, Hoi-Wah Tsoi MPhil f, Jade Lee-Lee Teng PhD f, Wenjun Song PhD f, Pui Wang PhD f, Siu-Ying Lau MPhil f, Min Zheng MPhil f, Jasper Fuk-Woo Chan FRCPath f, Kelvin Kai-Wang To FRCPath f, Honglin Chen PhD b f, Prof Lanjuan Li MD a b , Prof Kwok-Yung Yuen MD b f
Human infection with avian influenza A H7N9 virus emerged in eastern China in February, 2013, and has been associated with exposure to poultry. We report the clinical and microbiological features of patients infected with influenza A H7N9 virus and compare genomic features of the human virus with those of the virus in market poultry in Zhejiang, China.
Between March 7 and April 8, 2013, we included hospital inpatients if they had new-onset respiratory symptoms, unexplained radiographic infiltrate, and laboratory-confirmed H7N9 virus infection. We recorded histories and results of haematological, biochemical, radiological, and microbiological investigations. We took throat and sputum samples, used RT-PCR to detect M, H7, and N9 genes, and cultured samples in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. We tested for co-infections and monitored serum concentrations of six cytokines and chemokines. We collected cloacal swabs from 86 birds from epidemiologically linked wet markets and inoculated embryonated chicken eggs with the samples. We identified and subtyped isolates by RT-PCR sequencing. RNA extraction, complementary DNA synthesis, and PCR sequencing were done for one human and one chicken isolate. We characterised and phylogenetically analysed the eight gene segments of the viruses in the patient's and the chicken's isolates, and constructed phylogenetic trees of H, N, PB2, and NS genes.
We identified four patients (mean age 56 years), all of whom had contact with poultry 3—8 days before disease onset. They presented with fever and rapidly progressive pneumonia that did not respond to antibiotics. Patients were leucopenic and lymphopenic, and had impaired liver or renal function, substantially increased serum cytokine or chemokine concentrations, and disseminated intravascular coagulation with disease progression. Two patients died. Sputum specimens were more likely to test positive for the H7N9 virus than were samples from throat swabs. The viral isolate from the patient was closely similar to that from an epidemiologically linked market chicken. All viral gene segments were of avian origin. The H7 of the isolated viruses was closest to that of the H7N3 virus from domestic ducks in Zhejiang, whereas the N9 was closest to that of the wild bird H7N9 virus in South Korea [emphasis mine]. We noted Gln226Leu and Gly186Val substitutions in human virus H7 (associated with increased affinity for α-2,6-linked sialic acid receptors) and the PB2 Asp701Asn mutation (associated with mammalian adaptation). Ser31Asn mutation, which is associated with adamantane resistance, was noted in viral M2.
Cross species poultry-to-person transmission of this new reassortant H7N9 virus is associated with severe pneumonia and multiorgan dysfunction in human beings. Monitoring of the viral evolution and further study of disease pathogenesis will improve disease management, epidemic control, and pandemic preparedness.
***Quote Ends*** Author: K_Chan Time: 2/05/2013 18:22 Subject: 《H7N9禽流感與野鳥》